Various fasteners are usually made of cold heading steel. From the classification of varieties, in addition to ordinary carbon steel, the steel used for fasteners also includes stainless steel, high temperature alloy steel, aluminum-magnesium alloy, Monel alloy and so on. Among them, stainless steel and non-ferrous metals account for about 5%-7% of the total consumables, in addition to cold heading wire.
The steel types of cold heading steel wire rod and wire rod are generally low and medium carbon high-quality carbon structural steel and low alloy steel. Low carbon cold heading steel is mainly used for cold heading nuts. The materials used for bolts and screws are mainly medium carbon steel (ML35 and SWRCH35K), which are grade 8 and above after tempering.
The manufacturing of fasteners can be steel, non-ferrous metals, stainless steel, titanium alloys or other engineering materials, the processing method can be hot processing, cutting processing, but more than 90% of the products are manufactured by cold heading and cold pressing With high quality, good quality and high production efficiency, China's fastener industry has maintained steady double-digit growth for three consecutive years. Although the application proportion of non-ferrous metals and composite materials is increasing year by year, the role of steel used in high-strength fasteners cannot be replaced.
Cold heading is formed by metal plasticity at room temperature. Cold heading performance is one of the important properties of cold heading steel. Its performance is mainly reflected in its good cold formability; it must have as little resistance and possibly high deformability as possible for deformation. Cold heading steel has good cold forming performance. In the machining industry, cold drawing is used instead of hot-rolled material cutting machining. The advantage of this process is that while saving a lot of man-hours, metal consumption can be reduced by 10%-30%, which is in line with cleaner production. 2. Large-scale production of resource-saving enterprises, with high dimensional accuracy, good surface finish, and high production efficiency, is the advanced machining process to be promoted. Therefore, using the cold heading process to manufacture fasteners not only has high efficiency and good quality, but also saves materials and costs.
The steel mills that have established cooperative relations with the fastener industry, mainly Baosteel, Maanshan Iron and Steel, Xinggang, Xianggang and Hangzhou Iron and Steel, have formed an industrial group of wire rods for cold heading in my country. The varieties of products range from low-carbon, ultra-low-carbon, medium-carbon (tempered), low-alloy alloy steel and surface carburizing hardening steel, with specifications from 5.5 to 42mm, covering almost all the needs of fastener steel .
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